What Do Those Terms of Storage Mean?

Tech Tip – We hear and read terms like megabyte and terabyte used to describe the size of digital storage all the time. But do you really know what they mean?

The most common and smallest term of measurement is the kilobyte. Kilo means 1000. So you would think that a kilobyte would be 1000 bytes. Actually, it means 1024 bytes. In the digital world kilo is 2 to the tenth power or 1024.

You may see sizes written as kB or KB. These are not the same. The lower case k denotes units of 1000 while an upper case K denotes units of 1024 [1].

Units of measure go from the kilobyte up:

1 kilobyte = 1000 bytes
1 megabyte = 1000 kilobytes
1 gigabyte = 1000 megabytes
1 terabyte = 1000 gigabytes
1 petabyte = 1000 terabytes
1 exabyte = 1000 petabytes
1 zettabyte = 1000 exabytes
1 yottabyte = 1000 zettabytes

The later few may not seem relevant right now. Certainly, in terms of computer memory or storage sizes, those are still measured in gigabytes or terabytes respectively. You do see dataset sizes expressed in the petabyte and exabyte ranges now.

For instance, in 2011 the size of the US Library of Congress was estimated to be about 10 terabytes [2] though that seems to have been a very conservative estimate. Looked at another way, it is estimated that 2.5 quintillion bytes (i.e. 2.5 exabytes) of new data is created each day [3]. And another 2017 report says the US alone generates 2.657 petabytes of data per day [4].

What this means is that when we see reports on the size of data, the units of measure will constantly be getting bigger. You need to be prepared to understand the magnitudes being discussed.



  1. Kilobyte
  2. Transferring “Libraries of Congress” of Data
  3. How Much Data Do We Create Every Day? The Mind-Blowing Stats Everyone Should Read
  4. How Much Data Does The World Generate Every Minute?

Short Science Fiction Film “Black”

Short Films – I recently came across the short (14:09) black and white science fiction animated film “Black”. The synopsis:

Two astronauts are trapped on the orbital space station because of nuclear war that ran very fast on the earth below. They have lost contact with earth, all attempts to make a connection with their base or with anybody has failed without an answer.

This was a very well done animation, though the story is a little strange. It reminds me of a manga book. This was not the most enjoyable film and the rating for it on IMDB is only 4.9/10.

macOS New App Release – MediaTrans

Product Announcements – MacXDVD Software of Chengdu, China announced that the flagship iOS data management tool MacX MediaTrans has been updated to fully support Apple’s newly launched iOS 12. Apple users can rest assured that they can always take advantage of the fastest way to back up their data and get enough space on iPhones before they upgrade to iOS12.

MacX MediaTrans supports all iDevices running on iOS 12, including 2018 newly-released iPhone XS, XS Max, XR, and new iPad Pro. Get the latest version at MacX MediaTrans Official Page.

iOS 12 focuses on delivering a swathe of significant performance improvements for the largest variety of Apple devices, available for all phones from the iPhone 5S upwards. However, even if the old phones were eligible for iOS 12, installing it was a gamble. At a size of 2.77GB, updating to iOS 12 places a high burden on 16GB and 32GB variants of iPhone 5S, iPhone SE, iPhone 6, iPhone 6S and iPhone 7. Based on the past experience, iOS 12 upgrade is also fraught with risks of getting the phones stuck in data backup & restore, or even worse, the data loss nightmare.

To help get both recent and older iPhones ready for iOS 12 upgrade, today, continuing the company’s long-standing track of delivering day one support of iOS, MacXDVD offers full support for iOS 12 in its world’s fastest iPhone data management solution – MacX MediaTrans. It is by far the most efficient alternative solution to iTunes, leading in speed, supported file types, storage management options, easiness, and more.

Depending on the size of the files, the program can reduce the backup time up by 40%-90% than its competitors. Files like photos (HEIC, PNG, JPG, TIFF), 4K/HD recordings in HEVC or H.264, music and movies (purchased or not), ringtones, books, etc. can be backed up to the computer and restored to iDevices in a flash. iOS users of small storage can also reclaim gigabytes of iPhone space to avoid “Not Enough Storage” issue during the software update by transferring the large-size video files and mass deleting the storage-hogging photos, albums, and other data.

There are advanced capabilities to convert incompatible videos into iPhone MP4/MP3, export HEIC photos in JPG, create own ringtones, mount iPhone iPad as hard drive, and manage media library, etc. Simply drag-and-drop clicks, users can leverage the latest features of iOS 12, and even switch content from older iPhones or Android to new iPhone XS, XS Max, and XR, no waiting or struggles.

Pricing and Availability
MacX MediaTrans is normally priced at $59.95 (USD) for a single license copy with lifetime free upgrade and one-to-one top-level technical support. To celebrate Apple’s new releases and help users back up iPhone files easier, the iPhone data transfer tool now is 40% off in MacXDVD’s official Special Offer through September 30.

Book Review: “Run and Hide”


Book Reviews – “Run and Hide” eBook was published in 2018 and was written by Alan McDermott (http://www.alanmcdermottbooks.co.uk). Mr. McDermott has published nine novels. This is the first in his “Eva Driscoll” series.

I received an ARC of this novel through https://www.netgalley.com in return for a fair and honest review. I categorize this novel as ‘R’ because it contains scenes of Violence and Mature Language. The story is set in the contemporary US. The primary characters are CIA agent Eva Driscoll and former Spec Ops operative Rees Colback.

Driscoll’s brother had been part of the same team Colback had served with. Now only Colback is still alive and someone wants him dead. Only through Driscoll’s assistance has he avoided those that are pursuing him. Now they are both on the run. But who is it behind the orders to kill them? Slowly they discover that a powerful, wealthy cadre is after them. They can either run for the rest of their lives, or they can fight back.

I thoroughly enjoyed the 6.5 hours I spent reading this 300-page thriller. I liked the characters created for the novel as well as the plot. There is quite a bit of action in the story and it is left with a cliff-hanger ending that guarantees a sequel. I certainly will be looking for one. I have read a couple of other novels by McDermott and I have found all of them consistently good. I am not a fan of the cover art. I give this novel a 4 out of 5.

My book reviews are also published on Goodreads (https://www.goodreads.com/user/show/31181778-john-purvis).

Singapore, Singapore – The Fabulous Baker Boy


FoodDeserts – A few days ago when I walked down the Singapore River Walk I passed signs for The Fabulous Baker Boy cafe. It is located on the North end of Fort Canning Park at 70 River Valley Road #01-15, Singapore 179037.


We walked over to the cafe this morning ( only about 0.75 miles ) and were able to be seated. Most tables were reserved for people with reservations. That is something we will do in advance the next time we go. The place is not very big having enough tables to seat about 40.

We both chose to have the “Fabulously Fluffy French Toast”. They have the warning on the menu

(NOT FOR THE FAINT HEARTED) Sourdough Brioche soaked in a lovely batter made with eggs and cream, fried and finished with cinnamon sugar and drizzled with maple flavoured syrup.

We both agreed that this could easily be the best French Toast we ever have had. They also have some incredible looking pancakes and egg dishes. We want to try the pancakes next time.


We were able to set at our table and look out through the North facing all glass wall. The cafe is situated in a very nice area on the edge of the Park.


As the name implies, this is not just a cafe, but also a bakery. You can see some of their really delicious looking cakes in the photo above. Slices of the cake range from $9 to $10 and a full cake from $65 to $100 (Singapore dollars which are currently worth $0.73 USD each). I would like to try many of those cakes, but that will have to wait for another day. Check out their ‘Daily Bakes‘ for a full mouthwatering, calorie-rich list.

Will we come back to The Fabulous Baker Boy? Absolutely, but unfortunately not too often. This is certainly a place I would recommend for breakfast.

See my other Food & Location articles


macOS New App Releaser – Health Sciences Solution for ConceptDraw

Product Announcements – CS Odessa of Odessa, Ukraine has released Health Sciences Solution for ConceptDraw DIAGRAM v12 with new entities. A new set of solutions provides a wide range of graphic content to support documentation and graphics that deal with biomedicine, health science, and medical illustrations. The Health Sciences Solution for ConceptDraw DIAGRAM offers professionally designed samples and a number of vector objects related to medicine and health. It includes 10 libraries containing 192 high-quality vector graphics stencils.

A large percentage of the medical profession is involved in explanation and education. ConceptDraw DIAGRAM v12 and the 6 new libraries containing 179 ready-to-use vector objects, provided by the Medical Illustrations Solution, make quick work of visualizing and communicating medical information to any audience.

ConceptDraw DIAGRAM v12, supported by the ever-growing collection of business solutions is compatible with macOS and Windows. It is featured with an improved compatibility with MS Visio 2007-2016. ConceptDraw DIAGRAM v12 can open and save documents that can be used by Visio 2003-2016 users.

ConceptDraw DIAGRAM v12 retails separately for $199 (USD) per end user license. It is included in ConceptDraw OFFICE v5 which retails for $499. The new additions to ConceptDraw Solutions are paid items for current users of the recently released ConceptDraw DIAGRAM v12.

Singapore, Singapore – P20 Mobile Accessories


Locations – I recently had to buy a new iPhone. I woke up one morning and my 32-month-old iPhone 6 was simply dead. I ended up replacing it with an iPhone8, which I really like so far.

I have kept my last two iPhones in Otterbox Defender cases and I have been very pleased with the protection they provide. I dropped my iPhones on several occasions and these cases really came through. Unfortunately, the new iPhone 8 does not fit the Otterbox case I have for the old iPhone 6. The camera lens is larger on the 8. I needed to find a new case.

Now here in Singapore, there are phone accessory stores everywhere. The problem is that they only carry the fashionable cases, not Otterbox cases. I finally located a shop less than a kilometer away that carried Otterbox. I walked over there a couple of days ago and found the small shop “P20 Mobile Accessories” located at 175 Bencoolen Street #01-03 Burlington Square, Singapore 189649.

It was a little hard to find, but they had what I was looking for. In fact, the small shop had a good selection of iPhone and iPad cases, cables, and other accessories. If I am looking for items not carried by the Apple Store in the future, I will know just where to go in Singapore.

See my other Food & Location articles


Are You Ready for the Moxi Robot During Your Next Hospital Stay?

Robots – I came across the article “Moxi Prototype from Diligent Robotics Starts Helping Out in Hospitals” this morning. The Moxi is a robot from Diligent Robotics. Moxi is being piloted it right now. As they say about Moxi on the company website:

Moxi is a friendly AI healthcare robot that serves as a vital supporting member of healthcare professional teams by conducting the team’s non-patient facing logistical tasks, so the staff has more time to focus on patient care. 

We were inspired to create Moxi to help support clinical staff members in hospitals with their fast paced and demanding roles. Clinical staff balance patient care with massive loads of manual logistical responsibilities, such as fetching and restocking supplies or setting up patient rooms for new admissions. With an extra hand from Moxi, who autonomously completes those manual logistical tasks end-to-end without assistance, clinical staff focus on what they want to do and what they, as caring human beings, are best at: direct patient care.

So don’t look for Moxi to perform your next operation. It is there to help bring items from storage to patient rooms. Those non-medical, logistical tasks.


This is Diligent Robotics second iteration of the product, they previously had Poli. I have to say that part of what caught my eye with this article was 1) the fact that the CEO and co-founder Andrea Thomaz is also a professor of electrical and computer engineering at the University of Texas at Austin. I am an EE alumnus of UT Austin. And 2) that the company is based in Austin, TX, where my home is.

Part of what impressed me about this robot was how many off-the-shelf component parts they have used to assemble the new Moxi. That says to me that the robotics industry is beginning mature, and more robots will be appearing soon among us. Certainly having robots freeing people from the mundane logistics tasks will allow more focus on patient care.

On the other side of this advancement in tech is the potential displacement of staff that such robots will cause. However, with the costs of health care constantly increasing, finding ways of reducing costs is inevitable.

I will be very curious to hear how the pilots of Moxi go.

Museum Day 2018

Today is Museum Day 2018 in the US. Nearly 1,500 US museums are participating in Smithsonian magazine’s Museum Day this year, when institutions in all 50 states and the District of Columbia offer free admission to anyone with a Museum Day ticket.
Museum visitors can download tickets for participating museums online by visiting Smithsonian magazine’s website. Tickets provide free admission for two people, and they can be downloaded through 3 p.m. on September 22. Some museums are holding their open house on Sunday the 23.

You can use this Smithsonian site to search for Museums near you that are participating. See if there is a participating institution near you and go explore a museum today!

macOS New App Release – iShredder iOS 3.2

Product Announcements – ProtectStar of Miami, Florida has released iShredder iOS 3.2, their data shredding utility that easily deletes and shreds data on any iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch. Anyone can simply connect their iOS device to their Mac or Windows computer, and efficiently delete, clean or overwrite all data from the device.

iShredder iOS uses data shredding techniques that go beyond international standards set by state and military organizations for secure data deletion. iShredder’s data erasing algorithms have been analyzed by government authorities and independent security organizations to ensure the app does exactly as advertised, destroy all personal data on the device beyond any hope of recovery.

“When a user deletes personal files such as photos from their device, they may think they’re gone for good. The truth is, they can be recovered using any one of a number of forensic utilities. Those files aren’t really gone until that storage space is overwritten using secure deletion algorithms,” says Chris Bohn, CEO of ProtectStar. “However, in just some simple steps, iShredder iOS can securely wipe the memory space using patented security standards, making it impossible to recover any deleted data.”

The integrated secure cleaning module with its innovative search algorithm was designed specifically to detect and effectively clean up useless temporary junk data, caches, log files and more. It not only brings back valuable storage space to the mobile device, it also ensures a performance tuning just like having a new device. Even the new secure cleaning module does not simply remove temporary data, it is able to safely wipe those files by using the ISM 6.2.92 deletion procedure certified by the Australian Ministry of Defense.

Detailed erasure reports provide users an evidence of deletion and cleaned data.

iShredder iOS 3 is available in two versions, the Professional edition offers 11 different data shredding methods, completely wiping all free space and overwriting the storage area, to completely shred all of the stored data. iShredder iOS Military edition offers 18 erasing methods in total, while also offering an integrated file explorer.

iShredder iOS Professional uses certified deletion algorithms, including: DoD 5220.22-M ECE, Peter Gutmann, DoD 5220.22-M, HMG Infosec No.5, German BSI-2011-VS, US Army AR380-19 and more. iShredder iOS Military uses those same algorithms, plus makes use of enhanced military deletion methods like NATO standard, US Navy NAVSO P-5239-26 (MFM & RLL), USAF AFSSI-5020, German BSI TL-03423, and CSEC ITSG-06.

iShredder iOS Professional includes:

  • Compatibility with all iPhone, iPad and iPod touch models
  • Compatible with all iOS versions
  • Securely wipes all free space
  • Completely erases all data on the device
  • Secure deletion of temporary junk data
  • Includes the new 4-cycles ProtectStar Advanced Secure Deletion Algorithm (2017)
  • Includes 1 year of technical support and free upgrades
  • Erasure Report
  • 24/7 technical support via e-Mail
  • iShredder iOS Military includes the above features, plus:
  • Offers the ability to wipe data from Apple TV units
  • Additional military level erasure algorithms
  • An integrated secure file explorer

“Your iOS device contains all the information about your personal life,” continues Chris Bohn. “Data containing notes, passwords, address book, photos, videos, calendars and so much more. By using iShredder iOS, anyone can ensure their personal information remains completely inaccessible. The few moments it takes to securely erase all of the personal information left on your device can pay off in peace of mind, simply by knowing your data is not available to prying eyes.”

For enterprise users, the iShredder Mobile Enterprise solution was made to fit the needs and security policies of every recycling company (iShredder complies with the Responsible Recycling R2 (R2:2013) Standard for Electronics Recyclers and International Requirements for E-waste Trade and Recycling), mobile hardware reseller, leasing company, lost-property office, large enterprise or organization, and completely wipe multiple iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch at a time. An erasing module to securely delete also Android devices will be available in Q4, 2018.

System Requirements:

  • Mac OS X 10.11 or later
  • Microsoft Windows 7 or later
  • Internet connection for activation and updates
  • 40MB Hard Drive space

Pricing and Availability:
iShredder iOS 3 Professional is just $29.90 USD (or an equivalent amount in other currencies) and is available through the ProtectStar Online Shop. iShredder iOS 3 Military is just $49.90 USD.

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